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Volume(4) / Issue(1)

Agri-Startups in India

Mohit Kumar and Rohit Kumar Sharma

On the one hand, India is quickly becoming one of the world's largest markets, second only to China. On the other hand, India has a number of major issues to address, including education, infrastructure, agriculture, logistics, retail, and healthcare. This combination provides the most fertile ground for new enterprises. The incomes and consumption of not only the thriving middle class, but also the rural economy, are increasing rapidly. Startups will develop innovative descriptive business models to address the challenges that India faces. This is the most significant impact that startups will have on the Indian economy. This article provides an in-depth understanding of the Indian startup ecosystem.

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Nematode Management in Mushroom

P. Latha et. al.

The cropping pattern of mushrooms is characterized by a quick succession of fleshes at intervals of 6-8 days within a short duration of 6-8 weeks. Often the mushrooms are consumed fresh immediately after harvest. Thus, a specific management strategy needs to be planned for nematodes associated with this crop. Use of heat has been the most successful method of nematode control in mushroom cultivation. Biological control, if exploited, has a great potential in this crop. The possible biocontrol agents, advantageous to mushrooms are microorganisms, materials/ extracts, tolerant strains, and host resistance.

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Recent Advances in Mushroom Breeding Strategies

P. Latha et. al.

Increasing the yield and quality of crops as well as resistance to diseases are the primary goals for mushroom breeders in mushroom research. Methods of mass selection based on natural chance mutation as well as cross breeding and transgenic breeding are some of the methods carried out for this purpose. Protoplast fusion between different mushroom species, for example white and brown oyster mushrooms are experimented to obtain high productivity and long storage life.

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A Vegetable and Turmeric Grower's Success with More Crop Per Drop and Natural Mulching: Success Story

Nidhi Kumari et. al.

Raju Ranjan Kumar, a 39-year-old is a progressive farmer belongs to Itha village of Muraul block, Muzaffarpur district, Bihar and his educational qualification is Intermediate in arts (I.A.) subject and he is having an area of 4acre (own) and 1 acre on lease. He is from an agrarian family. He has adopted the advanced technologies for farming. He mechanized his farms through micro irrigation system and adopted various implements like: maize shellar and weeder. He also disseminated his knowledge to other farmers through demonstration in Itha village, the techniques horizontally spread among 150 farmers.

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Diversification of Old Textile and Apparel

Neelam Saini and Dr. Saroj Yadav

Shopping responsibly is the first step in reducing the waste of a lot of clothing. Eco-friendly clothing that is made from recycled or biodegradable materials is becoming more popular. These materials lessen the amount of textiles which can take a very long time to degrade that end up in landfills. Different steps are used for recycling process for development of new ones. Recycling process has many environmental benefits i.e. reduction in landfill which reduce the gases under land or atmosphere, animal health issues also decrease can make eco friendly products by without using any chemicals or dyes etc. At present time global warming is also increasing so by use of recycling process this can also be decrease at small level.

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Role of Insects in Pollination

Balakrishna, B.

Crop plants are the major sources for meeting human food requirements. Crop production not only depend on good agricultural practices but also weather conditions and other biotic factors. Among the biotic factors insects (bees, moths and butterflies) are playing immense role in increasing the crop production by the process of pollination. In all sexually producing crop plants pollination is the only way to increase economic yield. But in the name of development humans are creating unfavorable situations for increasing insect population indirectly leads to reducing crop yields. So there is a great need to change in human activities for getting sustainable crop yields.

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Different Strategies of Integrated Pest Managemet against Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke) on Pea crops (Pisum sativum L.)

Ashutosh Singh Aman et. al.

The Pea pod borer Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke) belongs to order Lepidoptera and family Pyralidae, also commonly known as pulse pod borer moth, Lima bean pod borer and Legume pod moth is the most destructive cosmopolitan pest. Its Economic Threshold Level (ETL) is 10% affected parts. This pest is a major, serious nocturnal pest of pea field crop, which cause 50.9% pod infestation with 77.64% seed damage. As lots of drawbacks and disadvantages of chemical pesticides. To make farmers aware and update about novel insecticides and some innovative approaches for pest management and different suitable and safer management tactics, which empowering the farmers to adopt Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tactics.

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Nyctanthes arbor-tristis: A Potential Therapeutic Agent

Mansi Tiwari and Amita Beniwal

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis is a perennial tree belonging to family Oleaceae. It is commonly known as 'night jasmine', Parijatha or Harsingar. This plant has long history of being utilized in traditional medicine for its wide array of applications. It has been used as an anti-oxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-viral, hypoglycemic, hypolipoidemic, anti-helminthic agent etc. owing to its phytochemicals present in it.

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Biotechnological Approaches in Post Harvest Management of Horticultural Crops

Dr. Manisha Kachari et. al.

In recent days the population is shifting from a rural area to urban area at high concentration. This situation creates critical condition to the vegetable and fruits growers to supply the right food to the right place with a minimum post-harvest loss. Rapid increase in population and food demand put together researchers to work not only to improve the nutritional quality and food quantity but also to increase the shelf life of horticulture crops by using the biotech engineering. A technique called genetic modification can be used in the vegetables and fruits to enable plants to tolerate the biotic and abiotic stresses, resistant to pests and diseases, improve nutritional value and increase the shelf life of the fruits and vegetable products. The plant hormone ethylene influences many aspects of plant growth and development, such as fruit ripening and leaf senescence, which is the main player in vegetables and fruit degradation in the long run of post-harvest. Therefore, if we can take the help of biotechnology and target the gene for biosynthesis of ethylene, we can delay the process of senescence and can preserve the food for longer duration without facing the loss due to degradation by senescence.

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Evolution of Herbicide Phytotoxicity and Herbicide Persistence in Soil by Bioassay Method

Y. Yernaidu et. al.

A bioassay is a technique for determining if herbicide (or other chemical) residues are present and bioavailable in soil or water at high enough concentrations to adversely affect plant growth. This is a simple, economical, and direct method to determine if it is safe to seed or plant into areas previously treated with herbicides or into soil with an unknown history of herbicide use. In its simplest form, a bioassay uses susceptible plants to identify if the herbicide is present in concentrations high enough to inhibit germination and alter plant growth. However, scientists sometimes use sensitive bioassay species to estimate herbicide concentrations in soil and water, and to identify unknown herbicide residues from exhibited injury symptoms. When newly seeded or established plants show seemingly unexplained symptoms of injury, stress, or decline. Also, when seeding or planting sensitive plant species into areas previously treated with residual herbicides. Topsoil from abandoned farm land can often contain herbicide residues that can injure many plants. Another too common occurrence is the presence of herbicide residues in compost (both commercial and municipal). Additionally, if you suspect that another product may have been contaminated with an herbicide, both the product and treated soil can be tested using a bioassay.

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Agriculture Water Management for Improving Crop Productivity

Anuj Kumar et. al.

Water is the most crucial input for agricultural production. Taking into consideration of the alarming fact of water crisis, there is a need to efficient management of water to conserve the precious input. Strategies for efficient management of water for agricultural use involves conservation of water, integrated water use, optimal allocation of water and enhancing water use efficiency by crops.

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Integrated Management of Potato Tuber Moth (PTM) Phthorimaea Operculella

Sudheer Kumar et. al.

The potato tuber moth is a serious pest that affects potato production and storage. Since the market value of the infected tubers has been completely reduced, it is more significant in the stores. Attract-and-kill was highly effective at reducing male flight activity and significantly reduced daily moth catches in pheromone-baited water traps (by 51.8-99.9%) in comparison with untreated plots. Botanicals are especially efficient in the form of antifeedant, repellent, protectants, and growth-disrupting hormones. They are also sources of secondary metabolites that are safer than synthetic insecticides.

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Natural Farming in the Context of Sustainable Development Goals

Vicky Yadav and Bineeta Satpathy

By 2024, the A.P. government and APNCF (A.P. Community Natural Farming) hope to convert 8 million acres of land and 6.5 million farmers to natural farming. Natural farming is more efficient and requires less energy. Conventional systems emit 40% of greenhouse gases. According to Japanese farmer and philosopher Masanobu Fukuoka, natural farming produces the same amount of production as conventional farming. Natural farming offers a healthy environment with no or low use of external inputs. To avoid the ill effects of conventional farming, we need to adopt chemical-free agriculture for safe food and better health. Natural farming has the potential to mitigate climate change and reduce GHG emissions. Natural farming has the potential to help achieve the goal of sustainable development.

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Ladybird Beetle (Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus): A Crucial Predator of Aphids

Arun Kumar et. al.

The ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata Linn.) is a crucial predator of the aphids that feeds on them. The attention on biological control is largely a result of the development of pesticide resistance or resurgence as well as their toxicity to non-target organisms. Both beneficial and harmful insects are adversely affected by chemical insecticides. Natural enemies (predators or parasitoids) are applied in biological control to manage pest populations below dangerous level. The most efficient and eco-friendly approach of pest management is typically biological control. Aphids are controlled biologically by aphid-eating ladybirds, or "aphidophagous" insects. So, using predators to reduce or minimize pests and their impacts is a method of biological control that is maintain the pest defender ratio.

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Eco-Friendly Technology for Production of Bio CNG

Debarati Gupta et. al.

There are different agroindustry by-products produced such as peanut shell, corn cob, rice sand wheat straw, bagasse, sawdust, pressmud, etc. The management these agroindustry by-products is a serious issue and hence needs solution for this. The agroindustry byproducts when mixed with cowdung can be used for the generation of biogas. The biogas generated can be further compressed and desulphurised to produce BioCNG. The BioCNG produced can be used as fuel in vehicles alternate to petrol and diesel. This will be very ecofriendly and economical technology.

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Springtails and their Role in Maintaining Soil Health

Kangkanjyoti Bhattacharyya and Pooja Kumari

Springtails are small six-legged animals and their distribution ranges from urbanized areas to Antarctica. They are omnivorous, free-living invertebrates that like moist habitats. Even though they don't take part in the breakdown of organic matter, they end up supporting this by disintegrating organic matter and maintaining the microbial diversity in the soil. Here, this article is about the food habits of springtails and their role in maintaining soil health.

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Human-Wildlife Conflict in the Vicinity of Protected Area: Issues and Management

Shailesh et. al.

The Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) is a common problem from the past and has become a very danger issue around the globe. Increase human activities into protected area leads to Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC) which is also known as Man-Wildlife conflict. Loss of crop, property, livestock and human causalities are the very serious problems of HWC. Out of these problems? human killing and killing of livestock are major problems of such kind of conflict.

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Role of Organic Farming in Agriculture

Sunidhi Tiwari and R.G. Upadhayay

Organic farming is a method of production of crops as well as the livestock which excludes the use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers and genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and other growth hormones. The principle or foremost aim of organic production to develop the enterprises which are sustainable and eco-friendly. The basic need of organic farming is to conserve the environment from the harmful chemicals and to preserve the soil health. Organic farming helps in promoting the use of crop rotation, integrated pest and disease management and other soil conservation techniques.

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Pokkali-The Unrivalled Treasure of Coastal Belt of Central Kerala for Rice, Fish and Shrimp Culture

Megha S. Vinod et. al.

The fields of Pokkali are unique in terms of its ecological and economic role. The ancient society has always vested in nature for their survival in terms of food and goodness; hence the culture practices back then were sustainable. But unfortunately, with the rising pressure of population and also due to the over exploitation of natural resources, the natural way of cultivation has got replaced with practices harming nature using science and technology. This has to be stopped for ensuring sustenance and thus comes the importance of traditional integrated culture practices like Pokkali in the present scenario. The Pokkali fields are highly nutritive with paddy and prawn as alternate crops. The system encompasses within itself huge biodiversity and therefore its significance is important. A detailed study of the different aspects of the culture practice will therefore be highlighted the content of this article.

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Occupational Skin Diseases in Farm Women

Dr. Jyoti Nayak et. al.

Occupational skin diseases (OSDs) result from or become aggravated by working environments or skin contact with substances used at work. Although OSDs can manifest in various forms, such as contact dermatitis, actinic keratosis, neoplasm, dermatophytosis, acne, and foreign body granulomas,1,2 allergic or irritant contact dermatitis accounts for 70-95% of all OSDs. Therefore, OSDs are also referred to as occupational dermatitis. Agricultural farm women engaged in outdoor activities are susceptible to numerous factors in their environment that may result in work related hazards. Exposure to chemical substances is a leading cause of occupational skin diseases. It is obvious because the worker's first line of contact with its environment, aside from the respiratory tract, is the skin. Occupational skin disease has important public health ramifications because it is a common occupational disease; and it shouldn't be ignored as it has a significant psychosocial and financial impact on individuals.

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Loss of Biodiversity: The Current Status on the World's Bird Life

Deepshikha Sharma and Ambika Rajendran

Biodiversity or Biological diversity is all the different varieties of life on Earth- the variety of animals, plants, fungi, different microorganism that make up our natural world. It comprises the number of species, their genetic variation and the interaction of these life forms within complex ecosystems. In a UN report published in 2019, scientists warned that one million species - out of an estimated total of eight million - are threatened with extinction, many within decades. Earlier known mass extinctions wiped out between 60% and 95% of all species. It takes millions of years for ecosystems to recover from such an event.

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